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31 Mar, 2023
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Nobel Prize For Physics to the Trio That Proved Einstein’s Quantum Theory Wrong!

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics 2022 to scientists Alain Aspect, John F Clauser, and Anton Zeilinger for their commendable work in Quantum Physics. 

Through their independent studies, the trio of scientists have proved that the concept of hidden variables does not exist in the real world. Instead, their experiments revealed that the influence of two objects in a system is based on realism and not on hidden variables. The disapproved idea was an assumption made by Einstein back in the 20th century to describe missing elements of quantum physics.

While researching quantum particles, Einstein described quantum entanglement as spooky action at a distance. He also said that entanglement makes quantum physics a strange and counter-intuitive study area. However, Noble laureates’ findings paved the way for advancements in quantum computing and cryptography. 

In quantum physics, the term entanglement is referred to an idea of a relation between two different particles separated at a specific distance. According to this concept, two particles separated by vast distances have the strength to influence the other one through some hidden variables instantly.

Also Read: Nobel Prize 2022 in Chemistry Awarded To ‘Click Chemistry’ Trio

On Tuesday, the Royal Swedish Academy commended the work that confirmed the troubling phenomenon as the heart of a technical revolution. Due to the relevancy of the experiment area, the award prize of 10- million-Krona (USD 915,000) will be equally distributed among Aspect, Clauser, and Zeilinger. 

An Award For Violating Bell Inequality Theory

For a long time, the question of the correlation between two particles was a common trouble for everyone associated with this field of research. The difficulty pertained because of the assumption that the particles in an entangled pair contained hidden variables. 

The presence of variables theory made researchers work to prove the results they were looking for. However, none of them came to a common finding. Therefore, in the 1960s, John Stewart Bell developed a mathematical inequality model to prove the variable theory.

The model stated that if there are hidden variables in a system, then the correlation between the results of a large number of measurements will never exceed a certain value. However, certain principles of quantum physics suggest that a certain type of experiment will violate Bell’s inequality theory. These exceptions paved the way for a stronger correlation which would otherwise be possible in the system.

Work of Scientists Who Won Physics Nobel 2022 Prize 

Using Bell’s inequalities concept, John F Clauser developed a framework that led to a practical experiment. He measured one particle by taking reference with another during his experiment, and surprisingly his findings revealed that the quantum systems violates the Bell inequality theory. This indicated that a theory that relies upon hidden variables could not replace quantum mechanics.

Clauser’s experiments, however, were stuck with certain loopholes that Alain Aspect identified in his experiments. To address this, Aspect developed a new setup and used it to close the loophole unaddressed by Clauser’s experiment. In his experiment, Alain successfully switched the measurement settings after an entangled pair left its source. This setup allowed the system to remain unaffected by the experiment’s results.

Now, after the success of Aspect’s experiment, some critics came out to claim that there existed certain loopholes in Aspect’s findings as well. To address those loopholes, Anton Zeilinger used advanced tools and long experiments to find the state of matter in an entangled quantum state. Among other things, Zeilinger’s experiment group demonstrated a phenomenon known as quantum teleportation. This theory enabled the movement of a quantum state from one particle to another at a distance. 

The latter’s experiment paved the way to conceptualize the theory of telepathy in the real world. So far, the concept of telepathy has been treated as a fictional theory. However, recent advancements support the consideration that in the near future, telepathy will normalize just as we use our cell phones. Anders Irback, the chairman of the Noble Committee for Physics, said the same thing.

Anders said: It has become increasingly clear that a new kind of quantum technology is emerging. We can see that the laureates’ work with entangled states is of great importance, even beyond the fundamental questions about the interpretation of quantum mechanics,”

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